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# Data types in Python: Numerics

## Integers, float, complex in Python - and some fundamentals methods to manipulate them!

Alo
·Apr 13, 2022·

• Introduction
• Data type: Numeric
• Methods
• Conclusion

# Introduction

Last time we reviewed the string and numerous handy methods to manipulate and format strings.

Today we will explore the numeric type and a few methods to work with them.

# Data type: Numeric

Python has three numeric data types:

• `int` (integers)
• `float` (floating-point)
• `complex` (complex)

## Integers

Integer, like other programming languages, is a whole number, positive or negative without decimals.

Example: `3`, `-204`, `123456`

## Float

A float is simply a number, positive or negative, that contains a decimal

Example: `3.1`, `-204.36`, `123456.789`

## Complex

Complex numbers are a mathematical way to express numbers with two parts: a real part, and imaginary parts. Complex numbers allow you to solve advanced mathematics problems.

Without going into details, I invite you to search more about complex numbers on the net.

Just know that with Python, the imaginary part is expressed with `j` (and not `i` like my Maths teacher taught me 👨‍🏫).

Example: `3+5j`, `5j`, `-5j`

# Methods

Let's explore some fundamentals methods you may want to use with numeric.

## Basic Math Operators

 Operators Operation Example ** exponent 3 ** 3 = 9 % modulus/remainder 10 % 3 = 1 // integer division 10 % 3 = 3 / division 10 % 3 = 3.3333- * multiplication 3 * 3 = 9 - subtraction 10 - 3 = 7 + addition 10 + 3 = 13

These are classed by highest to lowest order or precedence

For example: `2 + 3 * 3 ** 2` is equivalent to `2 + ( 3 * (3 ** 2) ) = 29` (if my calculations are correct! 😄).

☝️ Note that when doing division you might convert an `int` into a `float`, for example:

``````x = 5
y = 2

print(type(x/y) is float)
# >> True (we started with two `int` and ended up with float!)
``````

## Advanced Math Operators

For any advanced math operations, Python has a built `math` module that contains a long list of advanced math operators, such as `math.acos()` for the arc cosine of a number.

It also contains some universal constants, such as `math.pi`.

You can find the list of operators here.

## Assignment operators

Python also comes with assignment operators that allow you to assign and perform a math operation at the same time.

 Operator Example Same as Result if x = 3 = x = 3 x = 3 x = 3 += x += 3 x = x + 3 x = 6 -= x -= 3 x = x - 3 x = 0 *= x *= 3 x = x * 3 x = 9 /= x /= 3 x = x / 3 x = 1 %= x %= 3 x = x % 3 x = 0 **= x **= 3 x = x ** 3 x = 27

## Comparison Operators

 Operator Name == equal != not equal > great than < less than >= greater than or equal to <= less than or equal to

## Conversion

The last thing I want us to cover is how we do type conversion.

That is if I have an integer, or do I convert it to a float?

It's pretty simple, we use `int()` and `float()`.

You can also use `str` to convert them to string!

``````i = 3
f = 3.9

print(int(f))
# >> 3 (the decimal part is dropped)

print(float(i))
# >> 3.0

print(str(int(f)))
# >> "3"
``````

# Conclusion

That's it for the numeric data type in Python!

These few methods should give you a lot to work with.

See you next time 👋