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Data types in Python: Numerics

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Data types in Python: Numerics

Integers, float, complex in Python - and some fundamentals methods to manipulate them!

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Alo
ยทApr 13, 2022ยท

4 min read

Table of contents

  • Introduction
  • Data type: Numeric
  • Methods
  • Conclusion

Introduction

Last time we reviewed the string and numerous handy methods to manipulate and format strings.

Today we will explore the numeric type and a few methods to work with them.

Data type: Numeric

Python has three numeric data types:

  • int (integers)
  • float (floating-point)
  • complex (complex)

Integers

Integer, like other programming languages, is a whole number, positive or negative without decimals.

Example: 3, -204, 123456

Float

A float is simply a number, positive or negative, that contains a decimal

Example: 3.1, -204.36, 123456.789

Complex

Complex numbers are a mathematical way to express numbers with two parts: a real part, and imaginary parts. Complex numbers allow you to solve advanced mathematics problems.

Without going into details, I invite you to search more about complex numbers on the net.

Just know that with Python, the imaginary part is expressed with j (and not i like my Maths teacher taught me ๐Ÿ‘จโ€๐Ÿซ).

Example: 3+5j, 5j, -5j

Methods

Let's explore some fundamentals methods you may want to use with numeric.

Basic Math Operators

OperatorsOperationExample
**exponent3 ** 3 = 9
%modulus/remainder10 % 3 = 1
//integer division10 % 3 = 3
/division10 % 3 = 3.3333-
*multiplication3 * 3 = 9
-subtraction10 - 3 = 7
+addition10 + 3 = 13

These are classed by highest to lowest order or precedence

For example: 2 + 3 * 3 ** 2 is equivalent to 2 + ( 3 * (3 ** 2) ) = 29 (if my calculations are correct! ๐Ÿ˜„).

โ˜๏ธ Note that when doing division you might convert an int into a float, for example:

x = 5
y = 2

print(type(x/y) is float)
# >> True (we started with two `int` and ended up with float!)

Advanced Math Operators

For any advanced math operations, Python has a built math module that contains a long list of advanced math operators, such as math.acos() for the arc cosine of a number.

It also contains some universal constants, such as math.pi.

You can find the list of operators here.

Assignment operators

Python also comes with assignment operators that allow you to assign and perform a math operation at the same time.

OperatorExampleSame asResult if x = 3
=x = 3x = 3x = 3
+=x += 3x = x + 3x = 6
-=x -= 3x = x - 3x = 0
*=x *= 3x = x * 3x = 9
/=x /= 3x = x / 3x = 1
%=x %= 3x = x % 3x = 0
**=x **= 3x = x ** 3x = 27

Comparison Operators

OperatorName
==equal
!=not equal
>great than
<less than
>=greater than or equal to
<=less than or equal to

Conversion

The last thing I want us to cover is how we do type conversion.

That is if I have an integer, or do I convert it to a float?

It's pretty simple, we use int() and float().

You can also use str to convert them to string!

i = 3
f = 3.9

print(int(f)) 
# >> 3 (the decimal part is dropped)

print(float(i))
# >> 3.0

print(str(int(f)))
# >> "3"

Conclusion

That's it for the numeric data type in Python!

These few methods should give you a lot to work with.

See you next time ๐Ÿ‘‹

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